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Food Processing And Equipment

Roasting Process Open pan: An open, mild steel, circular dished pan of around 2 feet in diameter is supported on a basic earth fireplace. When heated, 2-3lbs (1kg) of nuts are placed on the pan at one time and stirred constantly. The CNSL starts to exude and then ignites. This produces a long flame and black smoke. After approximately two minutes, the pan is dowsed and the charred, swollen and brittle nuts are thrown out of the pan. The moisture evaporates quickly leaving the nuts ready for shelling. OZSTAR FOOD PROCESSING AND EQUIPMENT ( )

Drum roasting: The idea of continually feeding the nuts into a rotating drum over a fire developed from the pan method. A slight horizontal slope in the mounting ensures the movement of the nuts through the drum. The drum is pierced so that the flames touch the nuts and the smoke is controlled by a hood and chimney arrangement. The nuts are dowsed using a continuous spray. This process was further modified by using the heat from the burning CNSL being harnessed to roast the nuts some more. The roaster consists of a contained helical screw which moves the burning nuts at a controlled rate. The design was a distinct improvement, with little fuel being consumed and there being greater control on the roasting time. OZSTAR FOOD PROCESSING AND EQUIPMENT ( )

‘Hot oil’ method: The principle employed in this method is that oil-bearing substances i.e. the shells, when immersed in the same oil at high temperature, will lose their oil, thus increasing the volume of the oil in the tank. For this method, conditioning becomes important. The equipment consists of a tank of CNSL heated to a temperature of 185- 190°C by a furnace underneath and a wire basket used to hold the nuts for immersion into the tank. The depth of the basket must be sufficient so that the rim remains well above the oil during the roasting. Immersion time can range from 1½ to 4 minutes. About 50% of the liquid is extracted from the nuts. Draining trays are needed at the end of the tank for the roasted nuts to dry and the residue oil can be returned to the tank.

Caution must be taken not to heat the tank to over 200°C because at this point polymerization of the CNSL takes place. The temperature can be maintained by continuous firing. The tank should be emptied and cleaned after each day’s roasting. The life of a tank made of an eighth inch thick mild steel plate should exceed one and a half years and can be constructed locally with welding facilities.